Mouse myoblast cells were transfected with GFP-PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) as a marker for replication factories, pulsed with BrdU, fixed, and immunostained with anti-BrdU. The image shows t different typical S-phase patterns displaying GFP-PCNA (left, green), BrdU (red, center) and the merged images (right). The dominant yellow coloration in the merges shows the strong localization of PCNA at replication foci. Other images in this group show the co-localization of enzymes associated with DNA replication at foci and the dynamic changes in the GFP-PCNA signal in individual foci over time.
C2C12 cells were transfected with GFP-PCNA and 24 hr later pulse labeled with BrdU, fixed, and stained with anti-BrdU antibodies. optical sections acquired with a Leica TCS confocal microscope. Shown are stacks of 4-5 midplane sections. See: Fig 2B in H Leonhardt et al. 2000 Dynamics of DNA replication factories in living cells. J Cell Biol 149:271-279
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