Isolated chloroplast membranes of the unicellular photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were cryofixed, freeze-fractured, and surface replicas observed by transmission electron microscopy. The thylakoid membranes in this ac-5 mutant grown mixotropically show the particle size and distribution typical of unstacked membranes. See Fig 15 in Goodenough and Staehelin 1971 J Cell Biol 48:595-619.
Isolated thylakoid membranes were cryoprotected with glycerol, cryofixed, fractured at -100C, shadowed with Pt, and replicas prepared by carbon coating. Cleaned replicas were examined with a Philips 300 TEM. See Goodenough and Staehelin 1971 J Cell Biol 48:595-619.